I can sync with my iPhone again!
Today I woke up at 3:30 after about 6.5 hours of sleep. I worked today for about 9 hours, after which I called the Wisconsin Unemployment compensation hotline to file a claim a few weeks ago.
After my phone call, I decided to take a look at the family computer to see if I could attempt to get my iPhone to be able to sync once again with my iTunes library. I accidentally deleted the Windows usbfliter.sys file, so I went through a Windows 8 refresh. After I installed Microsoft Office, I downloaded and installed iTunes once again and this time the issue of syncing was resolved.
Some time this week I will need to get around to updating the computer to Windows 8.1 and installing the “better” antivirus protection.